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Traffic light controlling system helps to control the traffic lights to ensure that the traffic moves smoothly and safely as possible, mainly the people to are crossing the roads. The traffic signal is controlled by the electromagnetic controller.

In case there is power failure or any kind of interruption then there is a backup to the traffic controller systems that can enhance the safety of the pedestrians. The main function of the traffic light controller is to provide sophisticated control and coordination to ensure the traffic moves as smoothly and safely as possible.

Traffic lights are also named as stop lights, road traffic lamps traffic signal. Traffic control makes the right way to the road users by using light having normal colors like red, amber/yellow and green

The main objective of the such controller is to provide advanced control coordination for the smooth flow of traffic. The traffic control system works on the concept of fixed time allocation at each side of the junction with respect to the varying traffic density. Because the timings allotted at every junctions are fixed, sometimes there are higher traffic density is found on one side of the road which demands longer time period for the green signal compared to standard time. The main controller is the IR sensors and photo diodes will help to detect the density of the traffic signal.

A prototype of traffic light control system is constructed by using Infra Red sensors along with microcontroller and LEDs, which are mainly used as traffic signal controller systems based on the density of the traffic.

The traffic light control system consist of

• Display unit which consist of 3 LED Green Red and Orange on each side of the junction.

• Detector Unit it consist of combined arrangement of photo diode and IR LED at every junction for detecting the presence of vehicles based on the change in resistance

• Controller unit it contains a microcontroller which receives the output data from the IR sensors and controls the glowing of the LEDs based on the programming.

The main objective of this project is to design and develop a density based traffic signal system. The signal time changes automatically by sensing the traffic density at every junction.

The function is based on the concept of fixed time allocation, if on one side of the junction has heavy traffic then it demands longer duration for green signal.

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